This report explores the emerging issue of digital sovereignty which, more and more, is being viewed as critical, especially in Europe.

It begins by analysing perceptions of sovereignty in various Member States, and in other regions around the world that have historically been more proactive in this area, such as Russia and Asian countries (China, Japan, South Korea).

The report then provides a benchmark of six key enabling ICT (micro-electronics, quantum computing, cloud, cybersecurity, connectivity, artificial intelligence), associated public R&D funding and industry rankings in the different regions. It identifies the areas where Europe has an opportunity to reposition itself and secure market leadership.

Finally, it delivers a complete snapshot of the regulatory framework being adopted in Europe to develop digital sovereignty.

Table of contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Methodology
2.1. Scope: Focus on the enlarged ICT sector
2.2. Benchmark of public funding programmes
2.3. Definition: What is technological sovereignty?

3. National and European strategies
3.1. European visions of sovereignty
3.1.1. Europe
3.1.2. France
3.1.3. Germany
3.1.4. The United Kingdom
3.1.5. Italy
3.1.6. Spain
3.1.7. Sweden
3.1.8. Poland
3.2. Other countries’ visions of sovereignty
3.2.1. The United States
3.2.2. China
3.2.3. Japan
3.2.4. South Korea
3.2.5. Russia

4. Public initiatives: Funding schemes for different technologies
4.1. Synthesis
4.2. Quantum computing
4.3. Electronics
4.4. Cybersecurity
4.5. Network services
4.6. Cloud services
4.7. Artificial Intelligence

5. Private initiative
5.1. Industrial leadership
5.1.1. Leading digital industry players
5.1.2. Synthesis
5.2. R&D intensity
5.2.1. Overall R&D spending
5.2.2. Focus on private R&D
5.3.3. Start-up funding

6. Regulation and public policies
6.1. European Regulatory Framework
6.1.1. Digital Markets Act (DMA)
6.1.2. The Digital Services Act (DSA)
6.1.3. A common European market for data
6.1.4. The Data Governance Act (DGA)
6.1.5. Focus on EU cybersecurity initiative
6.1.6. NIS Directive
6.2. Other key actions
6.2.1. Data regulation
6.2.2. Taxation
6.2.3. Online platforms competition regulation

List of tables and figures

List of tables and figures

National and European strategies
• The digital sovereignty issue
• Key Enabling Technologies as defined by the EC in 2018
Public initiatives
• Total public funding on all ICT technologies in EU, Germany, France, Italy
• Total public funding on AI, quantum computing and cybersecurity in EU, Germany, France
• Total public funding on 5G and other digital technologies in EU, Germany, France, Italy
• Total global public funding of AI, quantum computing and cybersecurity
• Total global public funding of ICT technologies
• Total global public funding of ICT and digital technologies
• Quantum computing initiatives
• Electronics initiatives
• Cybersecurity initiatives
• Network services initiatives
• Cloud services initiatives
• Artificial Intelligence initiatives
Private initiative
• World’s top digital market players in 2019 by revenue
• World’s leading companies in micro-nano electronics in 2019
• Europe’s top digital market players in 2019 (by revenue earned in Europe)
• Breakdown of the different digital markets in Europe by suppliers’ country of origin
• Comparison of R&D spending in China, the US and Europe
• R&D in the digital sector in 2018
• Regional distribution of the World’s Unicorns in 2020
• Distribution of European Unicorns in 2020
• Comparison of R&D spending in China, the US and Europe
Regulation and public policies
• Illustration of the “Double Irish” and “Dutch Sandwich” schemes
• Comparison or corporate tax rates in Europe

Geographic area

  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • China
  • Japan
  • South Korea
North America
  • United States


  • Airbnb
  • Alibaba
  • Alipay
  • Alphabet
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Baidu
  • China Telecom
  • Cisco
  • Criteo
  • Dassault Systèmes
  • Deutsche Bank
  • Deutsche Telekom
  • Didi Chuxing
  • Ericsson
  • Facebook
  • Fujitsu
  • Google
  • Huawei
  • IBM
  • iQiyi
  • KDDI
  • KT
  • LG UPlus
  • McAfee
  • Microsoft
  • MTS
  • Netflix
  • Nokia
  • NortonLifeLock
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • Oracle
  • Orange
  • Rakuten
  • Salesforce
  • Samsung
  • SAP
  • SFR
  • Siemens
  • SK Telecom
  • Softbank
  • Telefónica
  • Tencent
  • Tesla
  • Thalès
  • TikTok
  • Uber
  • Vodafone
  • WeChat
  • Xiaomi
  • Yandex
  • ZTE

Other details

  • Reference: M20650MRA
  • Delivery: on the DigiWorld Interactive platform
  • Languages available: English
  • Tags: Artificial Intelligence, cloud, connectivity, cybersecurity, digital sovereignty, European regulatory framework, ICT, micro-electronics, network services, quantum computing, Regulation

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